Interval training has become an essential component of aerobic resistance training programs because it can facilitate a substantial improvement in performance. Two forms of interval training that are commonly used to improve aerobic endurance sports performance are high intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT). Despite extensive research, there is no consensus on the optimal method for manipulating interval training scheduling variables to maximize aerobic endurance performance for different individuals.
The results of a meta-analysis have recently been published (Rosenblat et al, 2021; Sports Med 7-abr; doi: 10.1007 / s40279-021-01457-2) whose objective was to determine the influence that the characteristics of the individual and the training variables have on performance in aerobic endurance.
Selection of studies. Twenty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis with a total of 67 separate groups. Participants included men (n = 400) and women (n = 91) with a group mean age of 25 (range 19-45) years and a VO2max of 52 (range 32-70) mL / kg / min. The training status of the participants was composed of inactive (n = 75), active (n = 146) and trained (n = 258) individuals.
The results showed that training status played an important role in aerobic performance improvements, as trained individuals only saw improvements of approximately 2%, while individuals with a lower training status demonstrated improvements of up to 6%. The change in HIIT performance depended on the duration, but not the intensity, of interval training. There was a dose-response relationship with the number of HIIT sessions, training weeks, and total work with changes in aerobic performance. However, the dose-response was not present with SIT.
The authors concluded that optimization of interval training programs to produce improvements in aerobic performance should be done according to training status. The results suggest that increasing the interval training dose beyond the minimum requirements may not increase the response to training. Also, optimal dosing differs between speed interval and high intensity programs.